The first military prison
When the gold hype died down, the fort was soon converted into a military detention base during the American Civil War, making it the first military prison in the country. As the number of prisoners increased, the facilities were expanded. In 1934, Alcatraz Island was placed under the administration of the Federal Bureau of Prisons and became a federal prison.
Slamming cell doors
Obviously, it is the exciting stories about serious criminals and adventurous escape attempts that make Alcatraz the number 1 attraction in San Francisco. On entering the prison, each visitor receives an audio tour. The tour is available in several languages, but we recommend choosing the English version, since you get to hear the original voices of former prisoners, who talk about their time on ‘The Rock’, as the island is also called. Sounds of, for example, slamming cell doors, bring the stories to life. As you look through the window at the contours of the city, you can imagine what it must have been like to be locked up here.
In the 29 years that Alcatraz served as a federal prison, there were no fewer than 14 escape attempts. These involved a total of 36 prisoners, 13 of whom succeeded in disappearing from the island for good.
Native American protest
In 1969, 6 years after the prison was closed, the island became a popular news item when it was occupied by Native Americans. They were protesting their limited civil rights and made unmistakably clear to the American government that they wanted to retain their cultural identity. The protest lasted close to 2 years. The island was ultimately designated a National Park in 1972 and, one year later, opened its doors to visitors. Around a million people visit Alcatraz each year.